Wednesday, August 5, 2009

Islanic Personalities and words

1.Abdullah bin Amar

Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-A'as accepted Islam before his illustrious father. He belonged to the tribe of Salim, a branch of the Quraish. He used to write down traditions spoken by the Prophet Mohammad (Sal-allahu-aleihi-wasallam). He was so devout, pious and God-fearing that he lost his eyesight owing to excess weeping. It is said that he died either in 63 or 73 A.H. at Makkah.

2.Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud

Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud’s real name was Abdullah and his father's name was Mas'ud. Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud, at the beginning of his youth, used to tending the flocks of a Quraish chieftain, Uqbah ibn Muayt. People called him "Ibn Umm Abd,” the son of the mother of a slave. Very soon, Abdullah ibn Mas'ud became a Muslim. Abdullah ibn Mas'ud gave up tending sheep in exchange for looking after the needs of the blessed Prophet. Abdullah ibn Mas'ud received a unique training in the household of the Prophet. He was under the guidance of the Prophet, he adopted his manner and followed his every trait until it was said of him, "He was the closest to the Prophet in character." He was present at the Battle of Badr. When he died at Madina in year 32 A.H., he was 60 years old.

3.Abu Ayub Ansari

Abu Ayub Ansari’s full name is Khalid bin Zaid Ansari Khajrazi, but he is well known by his surname. After his flight to Medina, the Holy Prophet (Sal-allahu-aleihi-wasallam) fixed his residence at Abu Ayyub's house. Abu Ayub Ansari accepted his hospitality. This honour was not shared by anyone else. He joined the Prophet (Sal-allahu-aleihi-wasallam) in all his fights and also took part in the great expedition sent by Hazrat Muawiyah against Constantinople. He died in 51 A.H. at Constantinople and, according to his last wish; he was buried at the foot of the wall of the city. He narrated many traditions from the Holy Prophet Mohammad (Sal-allahu-aleihi-wasallam).

4.Abu Bakr Siddique

Abu Bakr Siddique’s full name is Abdullah bin Osman Abu Qahafah. He was the first and the foremost companion of the Holy Prophet (Sal-allahu-aleihi-wasallam) in all his dangers and difficulties and was the first leader of the believers after the Prophet's (Sal-allahu-aleihi-wasallam) passed and the first male who accepted Islam when the new faith was announced. He was born at Makkah, two years and a half before the invasion of Makkah by Abraha, the ruler of Yemen and he died at Medina at the age of 60 years after a rule of 2 years and 5 months. The Holy Prophet (Sal-allahu-aleihi-wasallam) gave him the title of ‘Siddique’ (Extremely truthful) and praised him in many terms.

5.Abu Dawood

His full name is Abu Da'ud Suleiman Ibn Ash`ath al-Azadi al-Sijistani. He was a noted collector of hadith i.e. the sayings and traditions of Prophet Muhammad, and wrote the third of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, Sunan Abi Da'ud. He was born in Sijistan or Sagestan, in Afghanistan in 817, and died in 888. Widely travelled among scholars of ahadith, he went to Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Khurasan, Nishapur, and Marv among other places in order to collect ahadith. He was primarily interested in law, and as a result, the collection by him focuses largely on legal ahadith. From about 50,000 ahadith, he chose 4,800 for inclusion in his work based on their superior authenticity. Sunan Abi Da'ud, containing some 4800 hadith, is his principal work, but he wrote some 21 books in total.

6.Abu Huraira

Abu Huraira’s original name was Bad-Shams or Abd-Amer. Abu Huraira is also called so, for his love for a pet cat. After conversion to Islam, he changed his name to Abdullah or Abdur Rehman. He accepted Islam in the year of the Siege of Khaiber. He was greatly attached to the Prophet Mohammad (Sal-allahu-aleihi-wasallam). He had a wonderful memory and he was a great repository and an authority on traditions. Imam Bukhari narrated that more than 800 companions and their successors learnt traditions from Abu Huraira. Abu Huraira died in 59 A.H. at the age of 75 years.

7.Abu Sayed Al Khudri

Abu Sayeed al Khudri is very well known by his surname. He was extremely pious and a devoted man. A large number of traditions are ascribed to him. He died in 74 A.H. at Medina at the age of 84 years. He was buried at Jannatul Baqi, which is a famous graveyard at Medina, near the tomb of Hazrat Osman.

8.Abu Talib

Abu Talib’s real name was Imran but he is better known as Abu Talib because he had a son named Talib. Abū Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib was the head of the clan of Banu Hashim. He was married to Fatima bint Asad. He was an uncle of Prophet Muhammad (Sal-allahu-aleihi-wasallam). Abu Talib raised and supported Prophet Muhammad, while he was a young man. After Muhammad began preaching the message of Islam, members of the other Quraishi clans requested Abu Talib to silence his nephew or control him. Despite these pressures, Abu Talib did nothing but support Muhammad and defended him from the other heads of the Quraish. Abu Talib died in 619 or 623, at around the same time as Muhammad's wife Khadija.


wife of Prophet. Hizrath Aisha or Ayesha is the daughter of Abu Bakr. She was the third wife of Prophet Muhammad. She was married to Prophet Muhammad at the age of 6, when Muhammad was 53, and they consummated their marriage, when she was at the age of 9. In Islamic writings, she is known as "Mother of the Believers" She is quoted as source for many hadith with Muhammad's personal life being the topic of most narrations. Most early accounts say that Muhammad and Aisha became sincerely fond of each other. Aisha is usually described as Muhammad's favorite wife, and it was in her company that Muhammad reportedly received the most revelations. Sunni historians see Aisha as a learned woman, who tirelessly recounted stories from the life of Muhammad and explained Muslim history and traditions. She is considered to be one of the foremost scholars of Islam's early age with some historians accrediting up to one-quarter of the Islamic Sharia or religious law, based on the collection of hadiths, to have stemmed from her narrations. In the mater of caliphate, Aisha not only supported Umar, Osman, and her father Abu Bakr, she also raised an army and fought against Ali, her stepson-in-law.

10.Ali Ibn Abu Talib

Ali Ibn Abu Talib was born in the Ka’bah on March 17, 599 or 600 in the city of Makkah. His father was Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib. His mother was Fatima bint Asad. He was raised in the household of Muhammad. Ali, along with some members of the Banu Hashim clan, was Hanifs prior to the coming of Islam. When Muhammad reported that he had received a divine revelation, Ali was about ten years old. Ali was the first male to enter Islam. At the age of 22 or 23, Ali migrated to Medina shortly after Prophet Muhammad did. For the ten years that Muhammad led the community in Medina, Ali was extremely active in his service, serving in his armies, the bearer of his banner in every battle, leading parties of warriors on raids, and carrying messages and orders. As one of Muhammad’s lieutenants, and later his son-in-law, Ali was a person of authority and standing in the Muslim community. After the assassination of the third Caliph, Osman Ibn Affan, the Sahaba in Medina chose Ali to be the new Caliph. He was the caliph between 656 and 661 CE. He encountered defiance and civil war during his reign. While Ali was praying in the mosque of Kufa, a Khawarij assassinated him with a strike of a poison-coated sword. Ali died on the 21st of Ramadan in the city of Kufa on February 28, 661 CE. Muslims greatly respect Ali for his knowledge, belief, honesty, his unbending devotion to Islam, his deep loyalty to Muhammad, his equal treatment of all Muslims and his generosity in forgiving his defeated enemies.


Verse or sentence in Quran. The meaning of Ayat is miraculous sign. There are Five methods of Ayat countings. The School of Kufa says they are 6239. The School of Basrah says they are 6204. The School of Sham says they are 6225. The School of Makkah says they are 6219 and the School of Madinah says they are 6211. The difference in the number of Ayats makes no difference in the meaning of Holy Quran.

12.Battle of Badr

The place of Badr is situated at 130 kilometres to southwest of Madina city, in Saudi Arabia. The city of Makkah at that time was one of the richest and most powerful pagan cities in Arabia, which fielded an army three times larger than that of the Muslims. The Battle of Badr was fought on March 17, 624 CE (17 Ramadan 2 AH in the Islamic calendar. The Muslims and the pagans of Makkah had fought several smaller skirmishes in late 623 and early 624. The Battle of Badr however was the first large-scale engagement between the two forces. The battle was extremely significant. The Muslim victory also signalled other tribes that a new power had arisen in Arabia and strengthened Prophet’s authority as leader of the often-fractious community in Medina. Local Arab tribes began to convert to Islam and ally themselves with the Muslims of Medina.


Abu `Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Isma’il al-Bukhari was born on the 13th of the Islamic month of Shawwâl, 194 AH, in the famous city of Bukhara, - present day Uzbekistan – in Afghanistan. The father of Imam Bukhari, Isma’il Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Mughîrah al-Ja`fî, was a great muhaddith and ascetic. From him Imam Bukhari inherited his characteristics of literary zeal and excellence. During his infancy, his father passed away. His mother took on the entire responsibility of bringing him up. Imam Bukhari became blind at a young age. It was said, by the Grace of God, later he regained his eyesight. At the age of eighteen, He visited Makkah accompanied by his mother and elder brother, Ahmad ibn Isma’il. After performing the pilgrimage, his brother returned with the company of his mother, but Imam Bukhari stayed there for further education. He was full of intelligence and excellent memory. Imam Bukhari travelled to cities everywhere for the transmission of Ahadith. He had gained immense knowledge. Even though he was rich by birth, Imam Bukhari was a simple and hard working person. He would fulfill his own needs by himself. Despite having a lot of wealth and status, he always kept the minimum number of servants required and never indulged himself in this matter.

14.Ibn Wahb

Ibn Wahb’s full name is Abu Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Wahb Ibn Muslim. He was born at Old Cairo in Zu’l Kaada in the year 125 A.H. He was a member, by adoption, of the tribe of Quraish, a doctor of the sect or Malik: a native of Egypt was a mawla to Rehana, who was herself a mawla to Abu Abd arRahman Yazid Ibn Unais, of the tribe of Fihr. He was one of the great Imams of that age. He was a disciple of Imam Malik Ibn Anas. Ibn Wahb left his native town to meet Imam Malik in the year 148 A.H. He stayed with Imam Malik till the death of Imam Malik. Imam Malik conferred him with honours like ‘Imam’ and ‘Mufti’. For Twenty years he work hard to edit the works of his master, Imam Malik Ibn Anas, and to compile them into a Book, namely Al Muwatta. Ibn Wahb died in Old Cairo on Sunday, on 24th of Shaaban in the year 197 A.H.

15.Jabir Bin Abdullah

His full name was Jabir ibn Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Haram Al-Ansari. He was born in Yathrib 15 years before the Hijra. He belonged to a poor family of Yathrub. He was from the tribe of Khizraj. His mother was Naseeba binte Uqba ibn Uddi. He accepted Islam when he was a young boy. He is known to have fought in 19 battles, including Badr, under the command of Prophet Muhammad. He was a trusted Sahaba. He was present during the conquest of Makkah.
He fought in the battles of Basra, Siffin, and Nahrawan under the command of Ali ibn Abi Talib. Due to old age, Jabir was unable to participate in the Battle of Karbala. Jabir had a long life and became blind in his old age. He was poisoned by Al-Hajjaj bin Yousuf Thaqfi in the age of 94 years because of his loyalty to Ahl al-Bayt. He was buried in Madain near Baghdad at the bank of river Tigris. His died in 78 AH (697).


Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid was the First wife of Prophet Muhammad. She was the wealthiest person in Makkah. She always thought about helping the poor and sharing their sorrow and difficulties, and solving their problems. Therefore, they called her "Ummul Yatama,” meaning, "Mother of the Orphans". She married twice. Twice she became widow. On third time, at the age of 40, she married young Muhammad, who was 25 years old. She was the first wife of Prophet Muhammad. She was the first women to accept the religion of Islam. Prophet Muhammad never intends to marry another woman while Hazrath Khadija was alive. Their married happy life continued, during which she gave birth to Al-Qasim and Abdullah or Al-Tayib. She also gave to birth to four daughters namely, Zainab, Ruqaiyah, Fatimah, and Umm Kulsum. Prophet Muhammad loved her and respected her very much. She was one of the four virtuous women of the world, namely Asiyah wife of Pharoah, Mariam, mother of Jesus, Khadija bint Khuwalaylid and Fatima bint Muhammad.


Mohammad Bin Abdullah was born in Makkah around 570 CE into the Banū Hāshim clan of the Quraish tribe. His father was Abdullah and his mother was Amina. When he was about forty years old, he is said to have experienced a divine revelation while he was meditating in a cave outside Makkah. He began to preach to his kinfolk first privately and then publicly. As a result, the pagans threatened prophet Muhammad and his followers. During this period, Muhammad was protected by his uncle Abū Talib. When he died in 619, the leadership of the Banū Hāshim passed to one of Muhammad's enemies, 'Amr ibn Hishām, who withdrew the protection and stepped up persecution of the Muslim community. In 622, Muhammad and many of his followers fled to the neighboring city of Yathrib or Medina. This migration is called the Hijra.


Imam Muslim’s full name is Abu Al Hussain Muslim, Ibn Al Hajjaj Al Qushairi. He was born at Naishapur, in the year 204 A.H. He collected many authentic traditions of Prophet. His book is called Sahihu Muslim. His book is included in ‘Two Authentic Books of Traditions’. The First Authentic Book of Traditions’ is Sahihul Bukhari. Imam Muslim died in the year of 261 A.H.


Al Muwatta is the name given to a book of compilations of Traditions. It is one of the Six Authentic Books of Traditions. Imam Malik compiled. Imam Malik died in the year 179 A.H.


Osman’s real name is Osman Ibn Affan. He was the Third Khalifa of Islam. In the year 23 A.H., i.e. in 643 AC, when the Second Khalifa, Umar Bin Al Khattab died, he was chosen as Third Khalifa. He ruled for 12 years. He was assassinated by Muhammad, son of Abu Bakr and other conspirators on June 17, 656 AC. He was known as ‘Zu’u Noorain’ or ‘The Possessor of Two Lights’. He married the two daughters of Prophet Mohammad, namely Ruqaiyah and Ummu Kulsum. In his times. The Quran was correctly edited and publicized.


It means ‘Readable”. Muslims believe it to be a Word of God. It is the only uncorrupted original book in the Islamic History. The original Quran was revealed in Arabic language. Now, it is translated in all major languages. The Holy Book is divided by the Scholars into Harf, Kalimah, Ayat, Surah, Ruku, Rub, Nisf, Suls, Juz and Manzal.


A chapter of Quran. There are 114 chapters or Surahs in Holy Quran.


Tirmidhi or Tirmizi’s full name is Abū Īsā Muhammad ibn Īsā ibn Surat Ibn Mūsā Ibn ad-Dahhāk as-Sulamī at-Tirmidhi. He was born in the year 209 AH. He was born in Bugh, a suburb of Termez, Uzbekistan, to a family of the widespread Banū Sulaym tribe. He was a medieval collector of hadiths or Traditions. He wrote the ‘Sunan al-Tirmidhi’. His book is one of the Six Authentic Books of Traditions. He played a major part in giving the formerly vague terminology used in classifying hadith according to their reliability a more precise set of definitions. Starting at the age of twenty, he travelled widely, to Kufa, Basra and the Hijaz, seeking out knowledge from, among others, Qutaiba Ibn Said, Bukhari, Imam Muslim and Abu Dawood. Imam Tirmidhi was blind in the last two years of his life. Tirmidhi is buried in Sherobod, 60 kilometers north of Termez, Uzbekistan. He is locally known as Termiz Ota or Father of Termez City. He died in Bugh on 13 Rajab 279 AH.

24.Umar bin Al Khattab

Umar’s full name is Umar bin Al Khattab. He was born at Makkah around 580 A.D He was younger than Prophet Mohammad was by about ten years. Khattab, the father of Umar, was among the prominent members of the Banu Adis. Umar's mother was Khantamah who was the daughter of Hishām bin al-Mughîrah. One of the sisters of Umar's mother, Umm Salma was married to Prophet Muhammad. When Umar was a child, he used to graze the flocks of goats and sheep of his maternal aunts. Among the Quraish of Makkah, only seventeen persons could read and write, and Umar was one of them. Umar was a skillful rider. He was very intelligent and shrewd. He was a good public speaker. On several occasions, he successfully undertook ambassadorial missions on behalf of the Quraish. He was always prepared to stand up against the oppressor and espouse the cause of the weak. He was a successful trader and he undertook journeys to Syria, Iraq, Yemen, and elsewhere. When Umar migrated from Makkah, he was one of the richest Quraish merchants. Umar had three wives. His first wife was Qariba bint Abi Umayya al-Makhzumi. She belonged to the same clan as the mother of Umar. His second wife was Zainab bint Maziun. She was the sister of Usman bint Maz'un an early companion for whom the Holy Prophet had great regard. She was the mother of Abdullah and Hafsah. His third wife was Malaika bint Jarul al-Khuzai. She was also called Umm Kulsum. When the Holy Prophet (peace be on him) proclaimed his apostlehood. Umar, a young man of strong convictions, held the new faith to be a sacrilege of the idols of Katbah. He went to the Quraish and participated in their counsels. Then the meeting invited volunteers who would kill the Prophet. Umar volunteered to kill the Prophet. Meanwhile, he was compelled to go to the house of his sister, Fatima and Brother-in-Law Saeed Bin Zaid, who became Muslims. Sister Fatima made him to read some Ayats of Quran. Umar felt that those verses of Ta Ha were addressed to him in person, and the mysterious Ta Ha referred to Umar-the Man. Then, he said to his sister, "I came to you as an enemy of Islam; I go from you as a friend of Islam. I had buckled this sword to slay the Prophet of Islam; I now go to him to offer him allegiance." Then Umar became a prominent follower of Islam. The Prophet took Umar’s daughter Hafsah as his third wife. After many years, he became the Second Khalifa, after the death of Abu Bakr in the year 13 AH. For ten years, he ruled religiously. He was killed by Firoz, a Persian slave in the year 23 AH. In his times, the Islamic empire increased a lot.

25.Yathrib / Madina

Yathrib is also known as Al-Madina, the City. Prophet Mohammad took shelter in Yathrib, after making Hizrath from Makkah. Gradually, the Yathrib became a ‘Madinatun Nabi’ or ‘the City of Prophet’. It is situated area of Hijaz in Saudi Arabia. Prophet Mohammad was buried in Yathrib or in “Madinatun Nabi’.


Zaid full name is Zaid Ibn Thabit. His mother was An-Nawar bint Malik. Zaid was 13 years old at the time of Battle of Badr. Prophet Muhammad did not allow him in war preparations. Zaid decided to learn the Qur'an, whatever part was revealed, by heart. He did so. Then, Prophet Mohammad asked Zaid to learn the Hebrew and Assyrian languages. Later on, he was appointed as scribe to handle correspondence and to collect and keep record of the Qur'anic verses. Zaid was not the only one who acted as a scribe for the Prophet. There were forty-eight persons, who used to write for Prophet. Zaid was very prominent among them. He used his time to recite the Qur'an, and continued to learn the Quranic verses as they were recited by Prophet Muhammad. Zaid later volunteered to fight when he was 19 years old. This time he was accepted in the ranks of the Muslim army. After the death of Prophet Muhammad, the task fell on Zaid to authenticate the first and most important reference for the Ummah of Muhammad. This became an urgent task, because many of persons who memorised Quran died in the Battle of Yamamah. Umar Ibn al Khattab convinced the Khalifa Abu Bakr that the Quran should be collected in one manuscript. During Abu Bakr's reign as caliph, Zaid Ibn Thabit was given the task of collecting the Quranic verses from all over Arabia. Zaid diligently started locating the Quranic material and collecting it from every authentic source. When Zaid had completed his task, he left the prepared documents with Abu Bakr. Before he died, Abu Bakr left the documents with Umar. Umar left it with his daughter Hafsah. Hafsah, Umm Salamah, and Ayeshah were wives of Prophet Muhammad, who memorized the Qur'an. During his caliphate, Osman obtained the manuscript of the Quran from Hafsah. He again summoned Zaid Ibn Thabit, and some other companions to make copies of Quran. Zaid was put in charge of the task. The style of Arabic dialect used was that of the Quraish tribe. Zaid and other Companions copied many copies. One of these was sent to every Muslim province for reference. The wrong or doubtful copies were burnt down everywhere. The Caliph Osman kept a copy for himself and returned the original manuscript to Hafsah.

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